Today, February 5th, is the Lunar New Year, and with the new moon we welcome a new year under the Earth Pig sign of the Chinese Zodiac. While this may not seem like the most elegant emblem, a year filled with greater contentment, success and friendship is aligning in the stars!
The Earth in Chinese Medicine
In Chinese medicine and five element theory, the Earth element is at our center; it is in charge of healthy digestion and nourishment of our bodies. When we are well-nourished and our digestive systems are functioning seamlessly, we experience enhanced energy and sensations of contentment, which is what the Earth Pig is all about!
To magnify these feelings of well-being and ease in 2019, strive to be extra mindful of what you are eating. Try to eat plenty of fruits, veggies and whole foods and avoid over-indulgence in sweets, which can throw our Earth systems off center.
Gentle, balanced forms of exercise, like yoga, Tai Chi, and taking long walks, are perfect for the year of the Earth Pig. If you tend to exercise until you hit a point of exhaustion, consider trading in a few of your high-intensity workouts for more nourishing activities.
In the Chinese zodiac, pigs are sociable, kind and sincere. They make friends easily and are often referred to as “peace-keepers.” Just what the world needs in 2019!
Embrace your inner social butterfly this year. You might just find a friend in someone unexpected.
Here’s to 2019, the Earth Pig, contentment and friendship!
(This the 3rd article in the series of three. See the first here, and the second here.)
Can Diet Affect the Health of Your Teeth?
After researching the conventional approach to preventing cavities, I started to dig into the potential relationship between teeth and nutrition.
A bit of background, first. I spend a lot of time reading about food and nutrition. The dietetic wars fascinate me. There’s a lot of big-brained, highly-qualified, critical-thinking, research-waving people out there who vehemently disagree with one another about the most health-optimizing diet. They’re blogging, researching, teaching, publishing, and raking through data with a fine-toothed comb.
For transparency’s sake: I do not recommend one diet over another. I try to work with my patients from a Traditional Chinese Medicine perspective and help them find the diet that works best for them. Modern research has shown that there is no such thing as the “perfect diet.” Because there is tremendous variation among populations with diet, there is also tremendous individual variation. For instance, some people do better with no dairy products in their diet, yet others thrive on moderate amounts. Some feel better with a low-carb approach, while others feel better eating more carbohydrate. Beyond that, I’m also an advocate of finding pleasure and enjoyment in food, which helps with the sustainability of any particular approach to food.
More than anything, though, I recommend one thing the most: chewing.
Which is kind of hard, actually, with a bad tooth.
It’s worth mentioning that it can be difficult to do blinded, randomized, controlled trials of diet. For instance, it’s hard to adequately ‘blind’ subjects to what they are putting in their mouths (though some blinded research has been done, for instance, with the type of fats used in cooking since it can be hidden). If you want to know more about the difficulties of studying diet, see here.
One of the most problematic issues (as well as one of the most common) involves sharing correlational findings as if they are causal, which is straight up unethical when done purposefully in order to capture attention and wallets. This happens a lot.
Anyway, back to my burning question. Can nutrition affect teeth?If so, how? And if so, what should I add to or subtract from my diet in order to increase the resilience and health of my teeth? Below is what I did to try to find an answer to my questions. And not to ruin the results, but I never found the “answer.” I did, however, put together an approach that I felt confident might help me avoid future cavities. As for treating the ones that already exist…well, we’ll see at my next dental appointment. (Update as of 1/2016: Just met with my dentist; no new cavities!!!! Just a cleaning!!!!)
1. I read everything I could find about the conventional dentistry approach to caries. See here.
2. I read everything I could find about nutrition and teeth.
Let’s start with this. Here’s a website that’s been given the official stamp of the American Dental Association (ADA). If you like reading about nutrition, you’re going to find this website lacking; granted, the ADA is writing for the average American whom likely consumes the Standard American Diet (SAD) and whom may not have the time, money, or resources to delve deeply into nutrition…so to some extent it’s wise to keep dietary recommendations simple. (The question of how simple is too simple bears asking).
The ADA also follows the general guidelines of the MyPlate USDA food guide, which replaced the food pyramid, and is riddled with its own set of issues. Some of the information on the ADA site was of mild interest to me because it appears asifthere ARE some basic nutritional guidelines/suggestions endorsed by the ADA. I remain curious to why my dentists have neglected to share this basic information with me. Ever. Even when asked twice.
So, why is this, anyway? Why was it relatively simple for me to get some nutritional advice with a 2 second google search, but could get nuthin’ from the leather dental chair? Well, for starters, only about 1/4 of American med schools offer the 25 hours of nutrition training recommended — but not required — by the National Academy of Sciences. I interpret that to mean that we shouldn’t expect our doctors to be the ones to administer advice about nutrition, which seems only a tiny bit !CRAZY! to me.
I completed a 4 year Master’s degree in Traditional Chinese Medicine; as part of my training, we were required to complete 48 hours of study in nutrition. (I wish it had been more.) The biggest difference is that TCM considers nutritional therapy an essential treatment approach, and most acupuncturists use food therapeutically in daily practice. This is not to say that all acupuncturists always give good advice; this is to say that acupuncturists think about food as medicine. In other words, if you were to ask an acupuncturist about food recommendations to support the health of your teeth, you may have a hard time getting them to shut up.
The most content I could find (that wasn’t from a TCM perspective) regarding the relationship of nutrition to dental health came from followers of the dietary tenets of Weston Price. Weston Price was a dentist in the early 20th century who founded what eventually became the research section of the American Dental Association. The Weston Price folks had a great deal to say about the relationship of diet to teeth; doubly fascinating to me was that many vegans (who often lament ol’ Weston and his meaty prescriptions) agreed with the underlying theory, but differed on how to fill these nutritional holes.
Weston Price, in some circles, is referred to as the legendary dentist, but he’s not nearly as glorified in other circles. For those of you needing your information to come in the form of the double-blind, placebo-controlled, and largely populated, well…you aren’t going to be overly excited about Price’s data. His research was done in the early 20th century and wasn’t nearly as rigorous as your modern research geek would require. Also, I later discovered that Price’s research was problematic in another way (see how Price and the eugenics movement were relatedhere).
So, what were people saying about nutrition and teeth? Here’s what’s been theorized:
The modern Western diet (particularly flour, sugar, and modern processed vegetable fats) cause nutritional deficiencies that are a cause of many dental issues and health problems.
The modern diet does not contain enough fat-soluble vitamins (for the sake of this article, we’ll look at D and K).
The presence of phytic acid in a diet heavy in nuts, seeds, grains, and legumes influences our ability to absorb minerals.
Food remedies that may heal cavities and prevent tooth decay
So, assuming that optimal tooth formation is positively influenced by a diet that is sufficient in minerals, fat-soluble vitamins, and low in phytic acid, here are specific recommendations.
Enamel is the most mineralized substance in the human body. It is made up of mostly calcium and phosphate. Vitamin D is important for increasing the absorption of calcium and phosphate from the food you eat. Increasing the absorption of calcium and phosphate can improve the strength of your teeth and their ability to fight demineralization from bacteria.
Vitamin D receptors are found on cells in your immune system and in your teeth. Vitamin D can bind to these receptors and increase the amount of good antimicrobial proteins in your body which help to fight the bacteria that cause dental caries.
In addition, the cells in the teeth that form dentin and enamel contain vitamin D receptors, meaning that vitamin D may play a role in their functioning. Some studies show that dental caries are most common in late winter and early spring, when vitamin D levels are likely to be at their lowest. Many studies have found that geographic location and sun exposure are related to dental caries. People living closer to the equator with greater amounts of sun exposure are less likely to develop dental caries.
Mothers of children with early childhood caries have lower vitamin D levels during pregnancy than mothers whose children don’t have caries.
Studies that give people vitamin D supplements to prevent caries have found that vitamin D is effective at preventing the development of caries.
Vitamin D: Sources
Real sunshine is the best, but not always practical. If your arms and face (or the equivalent amount) is exposed to the following amounts of midday sun (11 am to 3 pm), without sunscreen, on a day when sunburn is possible (i.e., not winter or cloudy), then you should not need any dietary vitamin D that day:
Light-skinned: 10 to 15 minutes
Dark-skinned: 20 minutes
Elderly: 30 minutes
Animal sources of Vitamin D include the egg yolks of free-range chickens, cold-water, fatty fish (like sardines and salmon), and dairy products from cows that ate green grass (not corn). Shiitake mushrooms have vitamin D in small amounts. For a more detailed list of Vitamin D food sources, see here and here. It’s also relatively inexpensive to supplement with Vitamin D, though it’s ideal to have your levels tested in order to avoid over-supplementation, which is dangerous).
Vitamin K, specifically K2:
Vitamin K is actually a group of fat-soluble vitamins that are involved in blood coagulation and calcium binding. Low levels of vitamin K weaken bones and may promote calcification of arteries and other soft tissues.
There are three basic types of vitamin K. Their common names are K1, K2, and K3.
K1 is the “plant form” of this vitamin; the best sources of this vitamin are green vegetables. K1 is known for its role in blood-clotting. For instance, newborns are often given a K1 shot (or K1 drops) at birth to decrease risk of hemorrhage.
K3 (menadione) is a synthetic form of Vitamin K. Though it’s used for certain medical treatments, it’s generally considered unsafe and unnecessary for general use.
K2 is produced in animal tissues or as a result of bacterial fermentation (K2 comes in various forms, called menaquinones). Menaquinone-4 (MK-4) is produced by animal tissues. One of the richest sources of MK-4 is goose liver.
Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is produced by bacterial fermentation and is found in products like natto and blue cheese.
A number of other forms of K2 (like MK-9) are found in fermented dairy products, though MK-4 and MK-7 are the best studied forms of Vitamin K2.
Vitamin K2 can be made from K1 by bacteria and other microorganisms. In plant foods, you won’t find much preformed K2, unless those plant foods have been fermented or transformed by bacteria. Nattō is one of the only good vegan sources of Vitamin K2. Nattō is a fermented soybean product that is notorious for it’s stench and sliminess (it’s also not easy to find in Maine).
K2 appears to be a key vitamin in maintaining bone mineralization and limiting the formation and lifespan of osteoclasts. Researchers are also increasingly optimistic about K2’s potential for those with or at risk for osteoporosis. In addition, it’s being looked at as an important factor in cardiovascular health, in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, in the treatment and prevention of tooth decay, and as a factor in the prevention of prostate cancer. So far, research is in it’s early stages (and more must be done), but I intend to watch developments with interest.
Sources of K2
Good sources of K2 include nattō, pâté, grass-fed butter and ghee, and egg yolks from chickens. Moderate sources of K2 include blue cheese, Gouda, Brie, Jarlsberg’s and Edam. Here’s a more detailed look at the types and sources of K2 if you’re interested.
Phytic acid: The issue of phytic acid is controversial. This is the most comprehensive info I found on phytic acid. I try to soak and sprout as often as possible, since it does seem to make some (controversy exists regarding exactly how much) nutrients more readily available for the body to use.
How Does Traditonal Chinese Medicine Think About Teeth?
Eventually, I closed my laptop, all my books, and shut my peepers for a second to consider myself as a case study. What would be my Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis, and what would be my treatment? Over the past couple of years, my diet hasn’t been as consistent or nutrient-rich. Basically, I had a kid and my food prep and homemade food-makin’ time got squeezed pretty thin for a while (I’m workin’ on it!). Any of the health issues I’d experienced in the past couple of years (mostly minor, but bothersome) pointed to an imbalance in of the TCM concept of Kidneys – the organ associated with the teeth. Typical nutritional recommendations for a kidney imbalance? There was definitely some overlap, notably marrow (bone broth), cold-water fatty fish, small amounts of raw milk, and ghee.
A Lauren-designed, Lauren-experiment
So, what to do with all of this information? I came up with a plan simple enough for me to sustain, ordered from most exciting (pleasurable) to least.
As always, continue to fill much of my plate with lots and lots of veggies and some fruit
Add small amounts of grass-fed organic dairy, especially pasture butter and raw yogurt (I’ve recently committed to buying all of my dairy from a local co-op; it’s not cheap, but I did have enough wiggle room in my budget for this allowance. I made this decision because of this and this.)
I recently had a root canal and though it wasn’t painful, the experience absolutely sucked. I left the endodontist’s office two and a half hours later, $1300 less in my savings, feeling pretty dang defeated. After all was said and done, my debit card swiped by an ill-tempered front desk person, I sat in my 90 degree car and took a fit (cried). This was the 6th dental appointment that I’d had in 2 months for the same problematic tooth. Three nights previous to the root canal I dreamed that my teeth were falling out, one at a time. They looked like giant pieces of white coral. I’m used to experiencing dreams as tightly bundled metaphors; this was uncomfortably literal.
WHAT is going on with my teeth?
I asked my dentist and my endodontist this exact question.
“I’m so anal about my teeth!” I reported. “I brush and floss twice a day, sometimes three. Aside from a single cup of coffee in the morning, I drink water throughout the day. So why this dying tooth? Why the increase in cavities? Do you think that it could be related to changes in my diet?”
Though I asked these questions separately of my dentist and my endodontist, they had the same reaction: a shrug followed by silence. Though I might be wrong, I understood this body language to mean: Don’t know, don’t care, probably not. The only feedback I’d received from my dentist up to that point was that he attributed the problem to the location of the tooth and a history of grinding. But when I asked about the other two cavities that had been discovered, and wondered aloud why suddenly there was such an influx of problems in my pie hole, and mentioned again my regimented (read:anal) care of my teeth, and asked one more time about the potential role of nutrition since that was the only thing that had really changed for me, he shrugged again.
He didn’t even bother to answer why hedidn’t think nutrition could play a role.
I couldn’t help but be momentarily overcome by self-doubt. Perhaps I’m so grossly uninformed about dental health that I am coming off as a giant idiot? Maybe questions are annoying? Maybe I’m annoying for asking questions? (I answered my own questions quickly: No. No. No.)
I was told by my dentist that a root canal was the only option left, so I set up an appointment with the endodontist that he recommended. For whatever reason, extracting the tooth wasn’t mentioned. Three weeks later, I went in for the procedure. The first step was an x-ray of my tooth so the endodontist could examine the root. As soon as the image popped up on the screen, the assistant asked a question.
“Why are we giving her a root canal? Her tooth looks perfectly healthy.”
The endodontist cleared her throat and answered, irked, “I’m the doctor; you’re the assistant.” She then turned to me, rolled her eyes, and said “You’re getting a root canal because all the other signs point to a root canal.”
This exchange, as you can imagine, instilled a surge of confidence.
“Ohhhhh,crap!” I thought, and though my anxiety swelled and threatened to invade my body with a sickening heat, I stopped it in its tracks. I wasn’t the expert. Neither was the assistant. The endodontist had spent many years of her life studying how to care for teeth. Root canals are her thing! my rational brain exclaimed.
So, I opened my mouth, a meek pup, and 150 minutes later I was released to the wild. The endodontist and her assistant talked about many things while the insides of my tooth were filled with Gutta-percha – basically, the assistant asked decent questions and the doctor scolded her for being silly. Not my cup of tea, and 150 minutes of this was a bit much, but c’est la vie. Honestly, I just wanted to be able to chew food on the left side of my mouth again.
Before leaving the office, I asked my endodontist for her opinion about my tooth. I explained to her about my diligent care of my teeth, and told her that my dentist said that maybe the damage was due to the location of the tooth. I asked if she thought that diet could be a possible factor.
She shrugged and said nothing.
Then she turned around and went into another room, where she immediately started bickering with her dental assistant.
As soon as I was in my car, I began to cry out of pure frustration. $1300 was a big chunk of change for dental work, especially in addition to the $150 I’d spent first trying to fill it like a regular old cavity. And the whole damn experience would have been 70 percent less frustrating if those on the receiving end of my cheddah’ could have taken the time to talk to me. Taken a single minute to answer a single question.
Anyway, back to the pitiful sobbing. Two boogery minutes later, my inner warrior-pirate lifted my chin and said, Get it together, Lauren. Go home. Do some research. SAVE THE MOUTH OF THE WORLD, LAUREN!!!!
Once I got home, I sipped at a tall glass of water with my fat-lipped, half-numbed face and for the next 3 hours (which turned into the next month), I researched the subject of all-things-teeth.
Before I share what I found, here’s a bit of history. At age 36, I’ve had a total of 4 cavities (not counting the recent proliferation of problems with ma’ pearls). Since I’ve lived in various places, I’ve seen a handful of dentists and my experiences have been mostly consistent. Any time I’ve had to have a cavity filled, I’ve started the appointment with a request for information: What can I do – other than brush and floss – to keep my teeth healthy? With the exception of a recent Facebook exchange with a friend who’s a dentist, I’ve received little to no feedback or instruction. For instance, I did not know that you probably shouldn’t brush right after eating, especially if you’ve just eaten or sipped something acidic.
Historically, after a dental procedure, my tongue darting across some newly polished teeth or poking at a newly filled tooth, I’ve been reminded (as my debit card is being swiped) that dental insurance is inadequate. More than once, the priced-out sheet of what the dentist did that day and how much won’t be covered has made me cringe. Then my brain starts churning out concerns: What about people without insurance? What about the single moms, the students, the elderly, the working class, the kids, the poor? If regular cleanings are one of the most proactive things you can do to protect your teeth (get rid of that plaque!), and if any work done on your teeth quickly consumes your coverage, and if many people don’t even have the millimeter of padding that dental insurance affords, and if paying out-of-pocket is too expensive for many, and if the majority of dentists don’t accept Medicaid, then…well, we have an obvious problem.
“Lauren, that’s why the poor are associated with bad teeth,” my sister calmly explained. “And that’s why they show up to the ER with an abscessed tooth and leave with a prescription pain killer.”
Which is how an article titled “How to Avoid a Root Canal” turned into this post. (Yes, I do have practical suggestions in regards to dental care in the next posts; see here and here.)
But many people, and not just the poor, are unable to get the basic treatment they need. About 130 million Americans lack dental coverage, and the rest aren’t off the hook. Dental insurance rarely covers the full cost of treatment: In 2011, $39.2 billion—46 percent—of the $85.2 billion spent on dental care came directly out of patients’ pockets. Dentistry is expensive enough that many people postpone procedures they urgently need—even though an abscessed tooth is excruciatingly painful and potentially deadly if infection spreads to the bloodstream.Disrupting Dentistry, by June Thomas
According to The United States Department of Labor Occupation Employment Statistics, the annual mean wage of the general dentist is $166,810. Dental school is expensive (in 2013, dental school graduates had an average of $215,000 in educational debt), and most new dentists feel they have to embrace the for-profit model to pay back these loans. Because of this, many dentists end up serving a very specific population. As for dental “insurance?” Here’s some food for thought: In 1972, Delta Dental offered a maximum yearly benefit of $1,000, which bought a decent amount of dental care. Today, the average cap on dental plans is … $1,000. In over 40 years, the benefit has not gone up.
So, what exactly is going on here? Below is another except from a great article I came across in my maniacal consumption of all things dentistry. I’d highly recommend reading it if you’re interested in the complexity of the problem, including the problem that the dentists themselves have to face. One of the solutions suggested to confront the issue of accessibility is (somewhat) similar to…the community acupuncture model. Go figure!
When you hear how rare it is for private practice dentists to take on Medicaid patients, it’s easy to conclude that they’re selfish snobs prioritizing profit over the needs of poor kids. But it’s not that simple. There’s no question that Medicaid pays less than market rates, and as small-business owners, dentists can’t ignore financial considerations. Anyone with a limited number of billable hours each week would be sensible to fill them with the best-paying clients.
Dentists also have other reasons to be selective about the patients they serve. For people in good oral health, dentistry is an aesthetic pursuit. These people’s twice-yearly appointments typically consist of a cleaning by the hygienist and a thumbs-up from the dentist. Some dentists may prefer these quick and easy cleanings, with occasional elective procedures such as whitenings, over the complicated business of managing serious tooth decay and gum disease, which are more common among poor patients who may have missed out on good care as children. A dentist’s office has a lot in common with a fancy department store: The more expensive the clothes, the fancier the changing room, the more solicitous the saleswoman. Similarly, the higher a dentist’s fees, the more exclusive the waiting room. That’s why those dentists who do treat Medicaid patients often set aside a day just for them—it’s better for business to keep the two groups separate. –Disrupting Dentistry, by June Thomas
Before we move into the next blog post where I share my ideas on how we may practice preventative dental health through diet and other little tricks of the trade, below are a couple of resources, for those of you who might have found yourself stuck between a rock and a bad tooth. We have a serious dental crisis in Maine. Read about it here and here.
And please understand that my personal experiences around getting my tooth fixed are not representative of all visits to the dentist. When I started sharing my stories of dental woes, many, many people were happy to share the names of the dentists that they loved.
Though my tooth isn’t giving me acute pain any more, it’s still not resolved. I still can’t chew on that side of my mouth, and to complete the fix, it needs a crown – another $1300 out of pocket. It’s recommended that you get the tooth crowned ASAP in order to prevent complications, but many people have to wait for their insurance to ‘refill’ to complete the fix. Many never get it done because they simply can’t afford it.